Sunday, February 24, 2013

Organic Chemistry~

History of Organic Chemistry

Frederich Wohler (1800-1882). His synthesis of urea from inorganic compounds did much to overthrow the "vital force" theory of organic chemistry. At the age of 27, he discovered the element aluminium, and is known for many outstanding contributions to both inorganic and organic chemistry.

During the latter part of the eighteenth century and early of the nineteenth century, chemist began to distinguish between two types of compound: organic compounds and inorganic compounds.
During the time period, chemist also thought that organic compounds contained a special "vital vorce" that only a living organism could supply. They thought the only source of these compounds was nature itself. The fact that no scientists were able to successfully synthesize a known organic compound from inorganic starting materials gave crendence to this "vital force" theory.
Vital Force Theory, "Inorganic materials could be converted to organic materials in the presence of a vital force found only in living bodies."

We know that the "vital force" theory is incorrect. In 1828, the German chemist Frederich Wohler obtained unexpected result from a routine inorganic experiment has wa conducting. While attemping to recrystallize the inorganic salt NH4CNO from a solvent, he inadvertenly produced the well-known organic compound yrea, a compound of urine. Wohler's results were the stimulus for the renewed effort of the scientist to synthesis organic substances from inorganic starting material. This time, after a century of negative result, there were numerous successful reactions. By 1860, the "vital force" theory was laid to rest, and Frederich Wohler become known as the father of organic chemistry. Despite the fall of the "vital force" theory, with its emphasis on the living and nonliving origins of substances, the terminology associated with the theory (the categories of organic and inorganic) is still in use. However, the original definitions for these terms have changed.

Then, organic chemistry is defined as the study of hydrocarbons (binary compounds of hydrogen and carbon) and their derivatives. Interestingly, almost all compounds found in living organisms still fall in the field organic chemistry when this modern definition is applied. In additions, many compound that are synthesized in the laboratory, which have never been found in nature or in living organism, are considered to be organic compounds.

Rusman, M.Si & Riandari Dwika, M.Si. 2012. Organic Chemistry. Bogor: Bogor High School of Chemical Analyst.

Sorry if there was many of typo -_-v